Table of Contents

Beaux Arts
   - Neoclassical garden 1905-1930

Fig.40, Beuax Arts building
Fig. 40
Transforming the curving lines of the Art Nouveau floral motifs into geometric patterns. The principles of Beaux Arts architecture rely on the classical design of Greece, Rome, and the Renaissance. The main features are a massive, stone structure, with a symmetric façade, balconies, columns, a grand staircase and lavish decoration. In city planning, the Beaux Arts philosophy leads to neighborhoods, with wide boulevards, and expansive parks. This style is still seen in many St. Paul and
Fig.41, Neoclassic gard
Fig. 41
Minneapolis libraries and the geometric layout and architecture of American universities.

Neoclassic estate-sized gardens
Estate gardens are designed in a revival of the classic Italian villa. The main elements are stone terraces, a grand staircase, grottoes, fountains and statuary. The best existing example is the Kikuit garden on the Rockefeller estate, in the Hudson Valley, designed by W.W. Bosworth. Its size allows it to create its own distant views beyond the formal garden near the house, with a natural English landscape.

Fig.42, Neoclassic garden at Dumbarton Oaks
Fig. 42
Formal, Neoclassic urban garden
Although not in the Midwest, the garden at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, designed by Beatrix Ferrand, is the most masterful existing example of a large (10 acre) urban garden in the Neoclassic style. It incorporates French, English, and Italian garden elements to create garden rooms suitable for family use or entertaining. Created mainly between 1921 and 1941, it incorporates an orangery from 1810. Built to include a swimming pool, tennis court (now a pebble garden),
Fig.43, Neoclassic garden at Dumbarton Oaks
Fig. 43
and open-air theater, it uses formal borders reflecting the axial, geometric construction of the interior building spaces to create definition. The two main characteristics are clear organization along a main sight line, terminating in a focal point such as a sculpture, fountain or pleasant view, and the use of strong vertical planes such as evergreen hedges, walls made of stone, and shrub borders.

Trees, Plantings at Dumbarton Oaks
Notable trees are the Katsura, Japanese maple, American beech (clipped into a 16’ high aerial hedge), and European beech. Plant selection includes interest in all seasons. Spring blooms include cherry trees, forsythia, wisteria, azaleas, dogwood, akebia (Zone 5), and magnolia.
Fig.44, Roses at Dumbarton Oaks
Fig. 44
Early summer blooms are lilacs, perennial borders, clematis, roses, peonies, and the fringetree. Summer blooms include perennial borders, clematis, roses, and canna. Late summer features perennial borders, daylilies, fuchsia, gardenias (potted), agapanthus, and oleanders. Fall blooms include chrysanthemums and asters.